Lightweight Cryptography

Introduction

In the world of innovation, IoT is playing a very significant role in the development of technology. The security of the IoT data is very much essential nowadays. Encryption is very necessary for IoT devices. Lightweight cryptography is one type of encryption technology that keeps the data of IoT safe and secure. All the sensors, which are used in IoT, should be properly encrypted so that no threats could be achieved. Lightweight cryptography is one of the best countermeasures to all types of IoT security. It is an asymmetrical encryption method. Lightweight cryptography is portable and fast and it is a widely used encryption technique because it is very easy and small to be implemented. The main goal of Lightweight cryptography is to provide a high-level security measure to the data. It is the easiest way of implementation of encryption in any type of sensor. Not only for the IoT devices it is also required for the health industry and the smart cards. Everything about lightweight cryptography is discussed in this online assignment help.

Potential Security Threats

Cyber attackers are targeting the data, which are very vital and essential. Daily, a huge amount of data is being generated by the use of IoT [1]. The main security threats are impersonation which means to pretend to be someone other to gain access for the services and the information. Such a huge amount of data needs a huge amount of security measures. Here the role of encryption comes into play. Encryption plays a very significant role in protecting the data of any organization or any individual [2]. For example, if there is a plant, who installed several sensors in different parts of the plant then the data generated from every sensor is recorded which is very huge and if the data leakage takes place in any sensor then it would create a huge impact on the plant [5]. Incorrect analysis of data can cause data leakage. This type of situation can be avoided if there is a proper encryption technique in each sensor. Lightweight cryptography is an end-to-end data protection algorithm or process, which protects the data. Lightweight cryptography helps to protect the sensor to the data storage or servers. In every layer of the process, there is encryption so that there is no chance of data leakage [3]. Another security threat for Lightweight cryptography is a break in which is to take advantage of implementing the bugs over it. Hence, there are many security threats associated with Lightweight cryptography, which should be mitigated at the earliest, and proper security encryption should be introduced.

Working Mechanism

This part of online assignment help on Lightweight cryptography focuses on the optimization encryption technique or algorithm with standard cryptographic to run the small devices and constrained devices. For the smooth run of AES for IoT devices, it is much more costly and a huge amount of power is drained through it. However, Lightweight cryptography is very light, it does not consume much power, and it is lower in cost. Lightweight cryptography is much faster and safe to use [4].

The different components of Lightweight cryptography are mainly the lightweight block cipher and lightweight weight stream cipher. The working of the lightweight block is to implement the lowest weight chipper available. It helps to replace the heavy block cipher with the light one. The existing version of the cryptography should be replaced by the lightweight cryptography. It helps to secure the cipher for any type of device, which is memory constraints. The next one is the lightweight stream cipher. The main function of a lightweight stream cipher is to generate a key that is very much confidential in nature. It provides a secret password [6]. The most popular lightweight streams are the FSR and chacha. So these all are the components of Lightweight cryptography, which are essential for the working of lightweight cryptography. First of all the encrypted data from the sensor is taken to the microprocessor. Then from the microprocessor, it comes to the communication module, which is also encrypted. From the communication module, a decrypting key is used to decrypt the encrypted key. Finally, it goes to the server processor for the analysis of data. This is the working principle of lightweight cryptography [5]. The encryption is done at every step. So this type of encryption is quite safe to use. The example can be shown in the following diagram:

Performance Metrics

In the lightweight cryptography algorithm, there is a difference between the resources and the performance for a security level. The performance can be shown in terms of latency, power consumption and many more. There are two types of performance metrics including the hardware metrics and the software metrics [8]. In the hardware metrics, there are gates and slices. However, in the software metrics, there are mainly the rom and the ram usage. Energy consumption and power consumption are the two main metrics for any IoT devices. For real-time applications, latency also plays a very vital role. For instance, there is an automotive industry that needs the IoT data in real-time without any delay in the latency. The delay would create a huge impact on the entire system hence can ruin the organization. Therefore, good latency is very essential for the smooth functioning of a system. Throughput can be defined as the output, which we get from the IoT device. In the case of throughput, a moderate amount is generally required for any device to give the correct result. In the hardware metrics, it can be described in the term of the area of the gate [7]. It depends upon the technology for the implementation. It is measured in um2. The basic configurable unit is a slice. The two inputs of the NAND gate are equal to the one GE. The lowest cost RFID tag has a total number of up to 10000 gates. Only up to 2000 are used for security purposes. Minimizing the area can lead to a decrease in the consumption of power. In the software metrics, it can be calculated through the registers being used. The number of data or byte which is consumed by both ROM and RAM is also taken into consideration. Read-only memory stores the codes of the program and the RAM stores the value or the number of the value of it [5].

Lightweight Cryptography Algorithm

This particular part of online assignment help is about the main goal of the lightweight cryptography which is to provide security to the beneficiary and the sender [2]. Lightweight cryptography is used to protect the data with low energy consumption and power consumption. It is used to give better results and a satisfactory result by the use of a lightweight algorithm. It is guaranteed by the NIST. Proper hardware and software are to be integrated properly for a better result. Till now there is no specific requirement of a lightweight cryptography algorithm. There are three types of a lightweight algorithm, which are required for the calculation, they are, hash function, stream function, and the block cipher. It is generally used for low-cost assets and helps to secure it largely. All the IoT devices are being secured with a lightweight cryptography algorithm. This not only secures the IoT devices but this also secures the RFID, which stands for Radio-frequency identification. In lightweight cryptography, the sensors are encrypted then it goes to the microprocessor, which also is encrypted, and then it goes to the communication module. In the end, it goes to the server, which is being decrypted with the help of public key and private key [6]. Hence, this is the algorithm of lightweight cryptography. OTR algorithm can be shown as:

Current and Future Challenges in Lightweight Cryptography

Every technical object has some challenges, which need to be mitigated at the earliest. The current challenge of lightweight cryptography is it is limited to some known people who are associated with cybersecurity. Most people do not know about the algorithm and hence it is not implemented in most parts. The future challenges of cryptography are the selection of the size of the key, enforcing the threat model and bridging the gap. There are many challenges in lightweight cryptography which need to be solved. The lightweight cryptography is only limited to small IoT devices but are not suitable for large devices. Hence, there should be a way for large devices also. The security factor should be developed more for better integration of security [6]. These should not be limited to the small devices; all the devices should come with encryption. The power and energy consumption should be as low as possible. The processing speed should be a bit faster. It is very difficult to implement the lightweight cryptography, as it is very light and the speed factor.

Hence, from the above online assignment help report, it is concluded that cryptography is a good security measure. All the data, which are generated by the IoT devices, should be kept securely for analysis purposes. In the world of innovation, IoT is playing a very significant role in the development of technology. The security of the IoT data is very much essential nowadays. Encryption is very necessary for IoT devices. Lightweight cryptography is one type of encryption technology that keeps the data of IoT safe and secure. The main goal of the lightweight cryptography is to provide security to the beneficiary and the sender. Lightweight cryptography is used to protect the data with low energy consumption and power consumption.

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References

[1] McKay, K., Bassham, L., Sönmez Turan, M. and Mouha, N. “Report on lightweight cryptography” (No. NIST Internal or Interagency Report (NISTIR) 8114 (Draft)). National Institute of Standards and Technology Aug 2016.

[2] Peris-Lopez, P., Hernandez-Castro, J.C., Estevez-Tapiador, J.M. and Ribagorda, A.,. “Lightweight cryptography for low-cost RFID tags”. Security in RFID and Sensor Networks, pp.121-150, April 2016.

[3] Kaps, J.P., Diehl, W., Tempelmeier, M., Homsirikamol, E. and Gaj, K. . “Hardware API for Lightweight Cryptography”. Tech. Rep., Oct 2019.

[4] Sönmez Turan, M., McKay, K., Çalık, Ç., Chang, D. and Bassham, L.. “Status Report on the First Round of the NIST Lightweight Cryptography Standardization Process” (No. NIST Internal or Interagency Report (NISTIR) 8268). National Institute of Standards and Technology, Aug 2019.

[5] Kuznetsov, A., Gorbenko, Y., Andrushkevych, A. and Belozersev, I. . “Analysis of block symmetric algorithms from international standard of lightweight cryptography ISO/IEC 29192-2”. In 2017 4th International Scientific-Practical Conference Problems of Infocommunications. Science and Technology (PIC S&T) (pp. 203-206), October 2017.

[6] Omrani, T., Rhouma, R. and Sliman, L. “Lightweight Cryptography for Resource-Constrained Devices: A Comparative Study and Rectangle Cryptanalysis. In International Conference on Digital Economy” (pp. 107-118), May 2018.

[7] Buchanan, W.J., Li, S. and Asif, R. “Lightweight cryptography methods. Journal of Cyber Security Technology”, 1(3-4), pp.187-201, 2017.

[8] Shamir, A., Biryukov, A. and Perrin, L.P.“

Summary of an Open Discussion on IoT and Lightweight Cryptography”. In Proceedings of Early Symmetric Crypto workshop, 2017. University of Luxembourg, 2017.