GDECE103 – Language and Literacy Assignment

This study highlights the various perspectives such as behavioural, nativist, maturational, cognitive-developmental, social interactionist, and neurological. and of play-based language learning. Children from a toddler age perceive everything they see and feel in their surroundings. Children usually do not have any knowledge of the events during their toddler, but their subconscious mind stores everything, which gets reflected in their behaviour when they grow up. It is very important for parents and other family members to have a healthy and cheerful environment in their houses, which will be instrumental in their upbringing and how it affects the children as they approach adulthood. 

Theoretical perspectives on early years language and literacy development

2.1 Behaviourist

It is very essential for teachers of playgroup classes to implement proper behavioural strategies to influence the learning pattern of the children. While many teachers have incorporated the playful nature of teaching quite effectively, many others do not find this approach to be useful for children’s learning. It is extremely valuable for teachers to understand and implement the correct methods and behavioural strategies to get the best outcome, which will be beneficial for shaping the children’s future (Cui, Sun & Bell, 2021). Classroom management techniques will prepare teachers to adopt various techniques and learning processes to deal with different children, especially the most difficult ones. Sometimes, it becomes hard for many teachers to make the most difficult students pay attention and also to see to it that they do not become the cause of distraction for others. Behavioural strategies are very important for educators as it directly impacts the behaviour of the students. Since children perceive everything that happens to them and in their surroundings, it is important for the teachers to have a clear understanding of the psychology of the students. 

For example, the reward factor plays a vital role in this perspective. If four students have scored good grades and the teacher has only rewarded two students for their achievements, leaving the other two out, then the students with the reward will again try to score good marks in thy future, whereas those without the reward will not find any interest or enthusiasm to score good marks as they will consider it meaningless. Family members and people who are frequently in communication with the children, must develop and adopt ways to make the children always capture the good and positive vibes so that it has a strong impact on their psychology. Parents, neighbours and relatives must adopt the reward strategy so that the children are automatically motivated to learn and improve in order to be rewarded (Doménech-Betoret,  Abellán-Roselló & Gómez-Artiga, 2017).

2.2 Nativist

According to Cui, Sun and Bell (2021), nativist theory suggests that children are born with the intuitive ability to develop language. This concept was put forward by Naom Chomsky. Children initially learn to make sounds and they gradually learn to compute words from those sounds. As they grow, they start forming meaningful words. Then they start communicating in a more complicated manner. They learn what they hear from their surroundings (Eccles & Wigfield, 2020). This impacts their behaviour directly. If a child is raised in an environment which does not facilitate a healthy upbringing, he or she will perceive everything and anything that happens around them. Their words and their ways of communication will be dependent on how their parents and their neighbours communicate. Playgroup teachers have applied the Nativist Theory effectively in their method of teaching. It is found that children have the ability to capture their parent’s native language unconsciously and apply the correct grammar in their sentences. It is the duty of the teachers to use this ability to good use by making the children improve.

2.3 Maturational

Maturational theory of development deals in the segment where a child’s behaviour due to neurological and physical maturation is strictly monitored and analysed to help parents and teachers to implement the correct strategies for their children’s development. Movement patterns of the child are analysed to get a clear idea to proceed with the next set of steps and procedures. Temperament and how a child reacts when they are being scolded is a primary factor facilitating this particular theory. Teachers have a different approach to those children. Any psychological problems starting at the age of fourteen are dependent on the child’s neurological maturation from birth (Hernández-Lastiri, Borges & Cadenas, 2019). In many cases, it has been found that children developing psychological disorders from the age of twelve or thirteen are because of the way they had been brought up. If a child with no neurological disorders from their birth might start to suffer from psychological disorders from a very young age if he or she is witness to an unhealthy manner of parenting and upbringing like constant quarrels and fight between parents, growing up in an extremely hostile environment (Cui, Sun & Bell, 2021).

2.4 Cognitive development

The cognitive developmental process analyses how children are able to learn using the cognitive mental processes (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). Cognitive mental processes include thinking, remembering, judging, and solving problems. Any kind of learning like INFT3050 Programming Assignment is based on cognitive mental processes. This system must be implemented by the teachers and the parents to prepare their children for the future where they can always learn by applying the cognitive mental processes. It is the responsibility of the parents before the teachers to implant the cognitive process of learning in their brains. They will consciously or unconsciously grasp the system and use it further in their lives. Teachers play the most important role in shaping the future of the children, by teaching in such a manner that will make them learn their subjects through the cognitive mental processes, in a playful manner.

2.5 Social interactionist

Social interactions impact the behavior of children. The way parents and teachers interact with their children directly influences the way they behave (Cui, Sun & Bell, 2021). The words might have a strong impact on how they will go on with their work. Any uncomfortable and unpleasant words might degrade the children from a psychological point of view. It is very important to understand the children’s psychology and accordingly the parents and teachers must interact with them in order to rectify their mistakes or make them complete a task against their wishes. Children usually avoid doing their academic work like  at home or in school. A playful method must be adopted to make the work seem fun and interesting. The whole concept of social interaction deals with how one communicates with children (Puglisi et al., 2017). Any statement can be conveyed in different manners. The correct manner must be implemented in order to achieve the goal and also to make the children enjoy it.

2.6 Neurological

Neurological factors determine a child’s psychological pattern. It is very essential for parents to understand the psychological conditions from a very young age when they start to respond by smacking sounds. Varying neurological conditions make the parents and the teachers take a different approach to understand and dealing with the children. Proper execution of strategies by the parents and the teachers can make a neurologically imbalanced child develop into something great (Eccles & Wigfield, 2020). On the other hand, improper and careless approaches will have an adverse effect on the mind of a normal child, resulting in psychological disorders from teenage. Playful methods must be implemented in school and special care must be taken by parents to develop the child into a mature and successful human being.

Family members and educators to support children’s language and literacy development

The future of a child completely depends on their upbringing. A child unconsciously perceives everything that he or she hears and listens to from birth. If a child is brought up in an unhealthy environment like in areas where frequent hostile activities take place, then it is evident that the child will be inclined towards that behaviour. The initial words that a child masters are what he or she learns from their parents and their surroundings. It is important for the parents to see that the child grows up in an extremely healthy manner, so that he or she can shape up his or her future in a very prosperous manner (Marsh et al., 2018). Teachers must implement playful strategies and plans in order to make the student enjoy the learning process. The way teacher’s interact with the children impacts the behaviour of the children. When anybody is rewarded as a result of their hard work, they find pleasure as adults. The same psychological approach is being applied to the children. Suppose, a group of ten students is included who have been assigned to complete a mathematical task. It is found that all the ten students were successful in completing the task. Among the ten students, five students were rewarded while the others were left out. It was found that the students who received recognition for their work found pleasure in completing the task while the students without it did not find much enthusiasm to complete further tasks as it was deemed to be meaningless (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). Parents and teachers must look to prioritise the cognitive mental process of learning, helping the students to adopt this system for the future. 

Cognitive mental process of learning implemented by the parents and the teachers is not only responsible for shaping the student’s academic future but also helps them to make important decisions in life almost effortlessly. Reaction of parents and teachers on children upon making any mistakes, are important as it directly impacts on their behaviour. It has been found that they usually do not enjoy a good relationship with their parents and their elders, when they are not being responded to in the correct manner upon committing a mistake. If they are scolded unnecessarily and made to do something unwillingly in a forceful manner, they usually turn up to become disobedient and unfaithful (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). Children having abusive and uncaring parents tend to develop psychological behaviours leading to becoming a psychopath or a sociopath. Many have been found to lack any kind of emotions, making them cold blooded and cruel.

2 strategies about supporting children’s language and literacy development 

The two strategies supporting the children’s language and literacy development are as follows:

Developing Communication:

Communication is the most important factor that supports children’s language and literacy development. From a toddler’s age it must be the responsibility of the parents to interact with their children in a playful and joyous manner. Every child in the world is born with the ability to develop the language spoken by their parents and other family members. They do so by forming words with sounds. Gradually they try to utter meaningful words followed by complex and more complicated words (Marsh et al., 2018). A child’s development is completely dependent on their surroundings. Hostile and unhealthy environments will eventually make the child grow into someone whose actions can hurt someone.

Determining Importance:

Parents and teachers must ensure that children are given importance. If children do not feel that they are not important to their parents and teachers, they will feel that they are not important for society as well. This will create a sense of inferiority complex which will hamper their confidence, leading them to depression. Too much importance will have a reverse effect as it is the duty of the parents to make their children feel important and at the same time they must be tough to remain humble (Marsh et al., 2018).


This study has highlighted the various perspectives pertaining to children’s learning and literacy development. The perspectives have been explained in detail. The factors affecting the growth and the development of a child from a toddler have been given importance. The role of parents and teachers in a child’s life, managing different situations accordingly is pivotal for the child’s future. It is well understood that parents and teachers must approach children in a very playful manner in order to keep them happy and also see that they do not choose the wrong path in their lives. 

Reference list

Cui, J., Sun, J., & Bell, R. (2021). The impact of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial mindset of college students in China: The mediating role of inspiration and the role of educational attributes. The International Journal of Management Education, 19(1), 100296.

Doménech-Betoret, F., Abellán-Roselló, L., & Gómez-Artiga, A. (2017). Self-efficacy, satisfaction, and academic achievement: the mediator role of Students’ expectancy-value beliefs. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1193.

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2020). From expectancy-value theory to situated expectancy-value theory: A developmental, social cognitive, and sociocultural perspective on motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101859.

Hernández-Lastiri, P., Borges, Á., & Cadenas, M. (2019). Differences in Mechanisms of Social Interaction of Gifted Children Based on Peer Acceptance. Acción psicológica, 16(1), 13-30.

Marsh, J., Plowman, L., Yamada‐Rice, D., Bishop, J., Lahmar, J., & Scott, F. (2018). Play and creativity in young children’s use of apps. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(5), 870-882.

Puglisi, M. L., Hulme, C., Hamilton, L. G., & Snowling, M. J. (2017). The home literacy environment is a correlate, but perhaps not a cause, of variations in children’s language and literacy development. Scientific Studies of Reading, 21(6), 498-514. 

Schunk, D. H., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2020). Motivation and social cognitive theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101832.