Wireless Networks and Security Solution (MN603) Assignment Help


Wireless networks are a game-changer in the way data files are shared and stored on the internet. Unlike wired networks, which rely on physical cables to transmit data, wireless networks can transmit data over radio waves. This has opened up a world of unprecedented convenience and mobility for individuals, businesses, and entire communities.

The benefits of wireless networks are undeniable, but they also come with a set of security challenges. Wireless networks are open to unauthorized access, which can lead to data breaches and privacy violations, as well as financial losses. To protect the network, it is important to have robust security protocols in place, such as WPA3 or WPA2 encryption, strong, unique passwords, and regular updates to your network equipment. Firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and other security measures can also help protect your network from potential threats [1].

In this report, a wireless network is designed and simulated with 15 nodes. On the other hand, in task 2, a smart home technology is developed and tested. 


Task 1. Designing a wireless network with 15 nodes

The network diagram is created in Cisco Packet Tracer and all the devices in the network are assigned with a unique IP address. The NS-2 services are used and the DSDV is chosen as the routing protocol. 

The code is shown below.


     Figure 1. Network simulator code                          Figure 1. Network diagram (self-created in NS2 simulator)


Simulating the DSDV routing protocol in the wireless network

Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) is a hop-by-hop distance vector routing protocol that requires all nodes to broadcast updates of routing periodically dependent on the concept of the Bellman-Ford Routing algorithm. All nodes maintain a routing table that lists the sequence numbers designated by the destination node, the number of hops for reaching destinations, and the next hop for all reachable destinations. The sequence numbers are utilized for distinguishing stale routes from new ones and therefore avoiding the formation of the loop. The stations also transmit their routing tables if any significant changes have taken place in their tables from the last sent updates. A station transmits its routing table periodically to its immediate neighbor. Therefore, the updates are both event-driven and time-driven. The updates of the routing table are sent in two ways such as an incremental or a full dump update. The performance of the DSDV routing protocol in Network Simulator 2 (NS2) is that it has less end-to-end delay in comparison with Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) as the DSDV is a proactive routing protocol [2].  

DSDV avoids the longer time to set up caused by the network topology changes as the routing table is stored in the table-driven protocol. The end-to-end delay of DSDV is less than AODV. DSDV keeps a routing table for delivering the packet, and therefore it can set up the new route when there is any change in the network topology. DSDV is more likely to cause heavy congestion and overload issues [3].


Critical analysis of the trace files:

DSDV needs extra time for setting up the routing table before delivering the packet to the next node as DSDV is a table-driven protocol and throughput may depend on time. Its throughput can become less than that of AODV. Therefore, AODV has a better ratio of packet delivery in comparison with DSDV. Mobile nodes broadcast their routing data periodically to the neighbors in the DSDV routing protocol. All nodes require maintaining their routing tables. Each node broadcasts its routing table to its immediate neighbors with the sequence number in the DSDV routing protocol. The sequence number and node distance are updated when every broadcast takes place [4].

It can be recognised by analyzing the trace file provided in this study section which entails a network structure created in NS2 with special IP addresses assigned to all devices, NS-2 services, and the use of the “Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)” routing protocol offers valuable insights into the overall network performance and protocol behavior. The trace file exhibits that the “Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)” might have been enhanced to be determined as the routing protocol [8]. Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)” is a proactive data-driven routing protocol with the capability that all nodes periodically proclaim routing updates to their neighbors. These updates are integral for preserving updated routing protocols. However, it is demonstrated that the “Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)” depends on the “Bellman-Ford Routing algorithm” which can result in more protracted configuration instances for routing protocols [10]. “Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)” requires continuous updates of routing protocols which can lead to expanded manipulation overhead in the network. The analytical configuration of the node’s routing data might have been illustrated to make certain they have new routing paths to destinations. This technique helps in retaining route steadiness that can illustrate delays in routing choices due to periodic updates. 

The evaluation suggests that “Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)” might also have decreased throughput in contrast to distinct routing protocols such as “Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)”. AODV is a proactive protocol and it establishes routes on-demand, effectively resulting in faster adaptability to network changes. DSDV’s reliance on periodic updates and the desire for nodes to remain for these updates to assemble routing protocols can contribute to delays and decreased throughput, especially in dynamic or mobile networks [12]. It can also be determined that “Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)” has a higher packet delivery process ratio in assessment than “Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)”. This configuration is associated with the traits of each protocol that “Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)” emphasizes minimizing manipulation overhead and probably enhancing packet delivery in network topology adjustments frequently such as mobile ad-hoc networks [9]. The trace file shows that mobile nodes broadcast their routing data periodically to their neighbors in the DSDV protocol. This conduct is standard in proactive routing protocols such as “Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)” maintaining routing data and conduct in mobile environments nodes and network topology modifications occur. 


Analysis of the packet sent, received and dropped for the protocol

The data packet sent and received is within 1.3 seconds. The data level must be associated with securing the audio and video files while data is transmitted. The UDP is advantageous in avoiding any kind of DDoS attacks [5]. The analytical establishment of the interpretation of the network format is designed for the usage of the “NS2”, and every device in the network is assigned a special IP address. It can be determined by optimizing the possibilities of the usage of “NS-2” offerings and employing the “Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)” routing protocol [15]. The main purpose is to ensure the tightly closed transmission of audio and video archives while retaining a low data packet transmission time of 1.3 seconds. Additionally, “User Datagram Protocol (UDP)” is chosen for its benefits in mitigating “Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks” [18]. The analytical engagement of the comprehensive illustration of analyzing packet “sending”, “receiving”, and “dropping” for the protocol occurrences including.


Packet Transmission or Sending

In this network, the transmission of data packets starts to evolve associated with the source device which should be a PC or a server. These data packets include audio and video documents that desire to be securely transmitted to a destination device such as any other PC or a media player. Since UDP is used as the transport protocol, it affords a quick and connectionless transmission technique appropriate for real-time purposes such as audio and video streaming [16]. The comprehensive enlargement of the source device might have been emphasized to encapsulate the audio and video data into UDP packets. UDP headers encompass the preserve and destination device port numbers and the size of the packet. In the context of DSDV routing, the source device determines the ideal route to the destination device based on routing tables. It might be able to engage by optimizing the UDP packets to the subsequent hop machine associated with the required route.


Packet Reception or Receiver

In the analytical interpretation of performing the destination device device, the UDP packets are obtained and processed. The destination device system extracts the audio and video data from the UDP packets. The analytical engagement of the UDP is connectionless and there is no acknowledgement process [15]. Therefore, there is no security in the packet delivery procedure or order which may also be ideal for real-time functions of the establishment of a small quantity of packet loss can be accepted. The destination device reassembles the audio and video data and passes them to the respective applications, such as a media player. These functions render the audio and video content preference for the user. The use of UDP ensures low latency which is necessary for real-time multimedia applications [14].


Packet Drops and DSDV

In the context of DSDV routing, it is essential to recognise how packet drops are endured. DSDV is a proactive routing protocol that continues a routing protocol with data about the network’s topology. It depends on periodic updates to ensure route steadiness and loop avoidance. Packet drops can be simplified due to many explanations in a network, such as network congestion, link failures, or buffer overflows. When a packet drop is detected, DSDV routing tables are updated to ensure the new routes accumulate in the network. DSDV makes use of sequence numbers to demonstrate the illustration of routing information [13]. Higher sequence numbers point out greater current updates. To reduce packet drops and keep environment-friendly routing, DSDV units periodically alternate routing to replace packets. These updates consist of data about availability and obtainability routes and their related sequence numbers. Devices use these preferences to determine the most dependable and updated routes for packet forwarding. Overall, the comprehensive measurement of the use of “Cisco Packet Tracer” to examine a network with special “IP addresses”, “NS-2 services”, “DSDV routing”, and “UDP” for secure and low-latency audio and video file transmission. Packet drops are managed through DSDV through periodic routing updates making sure that the network adapts to adjustments and continues environment-friendly data transmission [17]. UDP is determined for its speed and suitability for real-time applications, and it’s better enhancement might have been demonstrated to encourage in the context of feasible packet drops.


Task 2. Smart Home Technology

Ethical Implications in the Design and Implementation of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)

The ethical implications in the design and implementation of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) include multipath fading, spoofing, jamming, etc. In multipath fading, signals do not take a direct path always when they are transmitted. A signal bounces off nearby outdoor or indoor objects and reflects at various times which results in signal deterioration. Signal deterioration is the delayed signals that carry similar information. Appropriate steps should be taken to eliminate these delayed signals. Multipath fading is overcome by switching the frequency of the communication carrier or by shifting the location of any node. Unauthorized access is where the attackers are not aiming at a specific user, but to gain access to the overall network. Some WLAN architectures not only permit access to the wireless network but also grant the attackers access to the wired element of the network [5]. The attackers gain access to the privileges or services that they are not authorized to access. This is executed by utilizing spoofing or jamming attacks. These attacks give the attackers the capability to do more malicious attacks. Spoofing is where the attackers gain access to network resources and data by assuming the identity of valid users. Spoofing is when something or somebody pretends to be something else in an attempt to gain confidence, get access to the systems, spread malware, steal money, or steal data. Spoofing attacks come in several forms [6]. 


The smart home networking is shown below. 


Figure 3. Smart Home Networking (self-created in Cisco Packet Tracer)


Testing for successful connectivity between users and IoT devices in the smart home technology 

The simulation of the network technology must be successful for every device in the network. 


Spoofing can be overcome by turning on the spam filter, not opening attachments in emails or clicking on links, logging in through a separate window or tab, calling or texting the senders to confirm that this is somebody one knows, showing file extensions in Windows, and investing in a great antivirus program. In Jamming attacks, if the traffic cannot reach the client, the network service is interrupted. Jamming may aim at disrupting the network. The attackers flood the 2.4GHz band which degrades the signal strength. Interference is unavoidable because of the wireless features. Jamming is the utilization of malicious interference on wireless communication systems. Jamming attacks come in several forms. Some steps prevent jamming attacks [6]. It is important to develop a way of monitoring the strength of the wireless signal on the local area networks. A sudden increase in interference or an inconsistency in signal strength is a sign of an attack in progress. It is crucial to educate users of any device on cyber security principles. Encouragement of utilizing virtual private networks and advising caution when utilizing public Wi-Fi networks is necessary. It is also important to utilize an intrusion detection system. Such a system identifies unusual traffic on the network and takes steps to thwart an attack in progress automatically. The utilization of the strongest encryption available and practicing strong password hygiene is also necessary. Organizations must invest in a spectrum analyser that boosts the power of existing points for access or utilizes various frequencies for protection [7]



Wireless networks have become an essential part of our day-to-day lives, providing the benefits of connectivity without the limitations of physical cables. However, their widespread usage also brings with it several security risks that need to be carefully managed. Wireless network security is essential for protecting sensitive information and user privacy. Encryption protocols such as WPA3 and strong password policies are key defenses against unauthorized access.

Routing and device firmware should be regularly updated with security patches to reduce vulnerabilities that cybercriminals can take advantage of network segmentation and access control can minimize the impact of a breach by isolating critical information from the rest of your network.